Coleman Callan will host the poster presentations from 1:45-3:00. Alex Browning will host the poster presentations from 3:15-4:30.

Schedule

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2022
Wednesday, April 27th
1:45 PM

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) & Violent Crime within the Black Community

Aikyia Youmans, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Bacteriophage Infection on Different Host Bacteria

Franco Zuniga, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

My research is to calculate the concentration, or titer, of three phages on their original host bacteria to ensure they are viable and then diluting it into different concentrations to place on three other bacterial hosts to see whether they infect the host and, if so, how well those plaques grow.

Bioinformatic Analysis of Transcription Factor ZNF16 Removal from Blood Cells

Anderson Fulton, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Bird Diversity and Abundance in Relation to Habitat Complexity at Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area

Grace Tidwell, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Cemetery Preservation Workshop: Public History at Work

Emma Dennis, Ouachita Baptist University
Dakota Furr, Ouachita Baptist University
Natalie Moore, Ouachita Baptist University
Makena Munger, Ouachita Baptist University
Sarah Spakes, Ouachita Baptist University
Hannah Webber, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The Ouachita Public History Program conducted a grant funded workshop in cemetery preservation for the public as an exercise in public history.

Comparison of Knee Flexion in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Grace "Libby" Tomlin, Ouachita Baptist University
Terry DeWitt, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the difference between the knee flexion of athletes and non-athletes. Injury of the knee is very common and can range on how serious it is by looking the degree of injury and mechanism of injury. The goal in mind while completing this study was to increase the flexion of the participant by implementing simple knee strengthening exercises and partaking in these exercises once per day for one week. It was found that with the exercises, the average knee flexion of the participant increased.

Comparison of Postural Variable in Division II Athletes and Non-Athlete College Students

Johnathon Callum, Ouachita Baptist University
Caleb Woodfield, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Research has indicated a possible difference in the development of posture deformities in athletes and non­athletes.

PURPOSE: This study was to identify posture differences in division 2 collegiate athletes and non­collegiate athletes and provide a two-week intervention to reduce discrepancies found.

METHODS: 16 male athletes, 1 O male non-athletes, 12 female athletes, and 13 female non-athletes participated. During the assessment, participants were evaluated from posterior and sagittal views with an adjusted REEDCO Posture Assessment. They were scored on a scale of 3 to 1 with 3 being good and 1 being poor in 10 categories with 30 being the max score. The volunteers were provided 4 stretches: neck extension, doorframe stretch, shoulder tuck, sitting up straight in a chair. They completed an anonymous survey indicating how often they did the intervention.

RESULTS: The initial plumb line test average score for male athletes was 28.37, 27.1 O for male non­athletes, 27.16 for female athletes, and 26. 92 for female non-athletes. The final scores for male athletes were 28.93, 28.1 O for male non-athletes, 29.16 for female athletes, and 28.69 for female non-athletes. 6% of the population said they did the intervention for 2 weeks, 23% did it for a week and a half, 51% did it for 1 week, and 20% didn't do it at all. After conducting a one-way ANOVA test with the average scores of the final plumb line test a p-value of 0.1723 was found. Most group's scores on average increased by 1.33 points after participating in the intervention.

CONCLUSION: A difference in posture scores for the populations being tested was observed. Athletes had better initial and post posture scores than non-athletes. The intervention improved scores for most participants. A Limitation of the study includes not monitoring volunteers' adherence to the intervention. When conducting future research keeping track of the exact sport or activities the athletes and non-athletes participate in would be beneficial.

Connections between Alcohol and Illegal Drug Use and Violent Crime within the Black Community

Nathan Scolaro, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

There is a worrying trend concerning violent crime within the African American Community. Most Notably Black-on-Black homicide. In an effort to better understand the factors that are contributing to this phenomenon, my poster analysis the influence that alcohol and illegal drug consumption has had on this community.

Exploring Correlations Between Participation in Extracurricular Activities at the High School Level with the Likelihood of Adult Criminal Record

Khennedy Brunson, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

How can After School Programs Lower the Crime Rate

Pery Taylor, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

How Gender Biases Affect Perceived Competence

Jay Brumsey, Ouachita Baptist University
Saba Esho, Ouachita Baptist University
Dawson Goodwin, Ouachita Baptist University
Annika Jostad, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

We investigated whether participants' gender biases had an effect on their ability to learn a new task. To study this, participants either watched a knot tying or macrame tutorial taught by a male or female instructor. Participants then completed two surveys, one that measured their perceived competence on the task, and another that measured their own gender biases. To measure gender biases we used the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory which had no effect on the results. No significant results were found between instructor gender and type of task when measuring perceived competence.

Identification of miRNA Targets as Lung Cancer Therapeutics

Lauren McCann, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Improving Military Performance of Load Bearing Exercises

Paul Harwood, Ouachita Baptist University
Will Weir, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

In the U.S. military, load bearing exercises are a prevalent source of overuse injuries. These injuries decrease individual soldier readiness, which effects overall unit effectiveness. In order to prevent future overuse injuries, an 8-week physical fitness intervention program, consisting of 17 ROTC cadets was conducted. The program consisted of a 3-day-a-week physical fitness training regime which focused on improving cardiovascular strength and mid/lower body strength. A timed, 4-mile ruck march was used to gather formative and summative data. Upon completion of the intervention program, no overuse injuries were recorded and the average 4-mile ruck time improved by 1 minute and 55 seconds. Discrepancies within the study consisted of inconsistent attendance and/or motivation of participants during training and testing.

Is Incarceration the Best Solution to Consequent Criminal Activity in the Black Community?

Luke Falco, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

New Paenibacillus Bacteria Genome Assembly

Makenna Kager, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Due to DLA16’s ability to produce antibiotics it was selected for whole genome sequencing.

Perceived vs Actual Learning in Virtual and In-Person Classes

Elizabeth Byrd, Ouachita Baptist University
Bella Bevel, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

We studied students perceived and actual learning in online versus in-person classroom environments. Participants attended a lecture that was either in person or on Zoom. After the lecture, they filled out a survey about perceived learning, and then completed a quiz over the lectured material. Results found no significant difference in scores from either environment, but the data was trending towards higher in-person quiz scores, as well as higher perceived learning for in-person environments. This is important in helping our understanding of classroom environmental effects on learning, specifically in higher education.

Phage Discovery Research

John Peyton, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Recreational Sport's Relationship to Violent Crime Rates

Cole Edrington, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Screening Balance of Division II Athletes

Madison Montgomery, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Spawn Patterns of Largemouth Bass on DeGray Regulating Lake

Seth Curl, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effect of Financial Aid on Emotional Regulation

Kelby Cansler, Ouachita Baptist University
Joseph Lattier, Ouachita Baptist University
Taylor Langston, Ouachita Baptist University
Allyson Phillips, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The current study examined if college students with backgrounds in a higher socioeconomic status (SES) would be able to regulate emotions better than ones from lower SES. After completing demographic and financial surveys, participants read a story written to manipulate feelings of either success or failure. Next, participants answered 1 O questions measuring emotion regulation with 6 based on cognitive reappraisal and the other 4 on expressive suppression. The results showed no significance between variables SES or success and failure.

The Effect of Sadism and Racism Levels on a Person's Willingness to Harm an Innocent Victem

Lauren McCann, Ouachita Baptist University
Natalie Helms, Ouachita Baptist University
Mea Heard, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

We investigated whether racial bias and sadism levels affected participants' willingness to harm an innocent person. Participants completed a personality assessment mixed with ten sadism questions to reduce suspiciousness of what we were really measuring and competed with a fictional opponent, unbeknownst to the participant and randomly assigned to be black or white in a series of reaction time tests, followed by a punishment time, placing a hand in ice water for a number of seconds, decided by the winner of that round. There were four rounds in which the fictional opponent won the first round and assigned a punishment time of zero seconds, and the participant won rounds two, three, and four. The punishment times given by the participants were recorded and measured as the willingness to harm an innocent person. Participants facing a black opponent gave significantly higher punishment times than those who faced a white opponent. These results indicate that racial bias is still prevalent and can cause harm to those around us.

The Effect of Social Media on Self Esteem: Uplifting Instagram vs. Influencer Instagram

Alex Delgado, Ouachita Baptist University
Karigan Clay, Ouachita Baptist University
Allyson Phillips, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The current study explored whether the type of lnstagram feed viewed by women influences their self-esteem levels. Participants were asked to view one of two lnstagram feeds, a positive feed that consisted of encouraging quotes and Bible verses or an influencer feed comprised of pictures of influencers working out or modeling in a fashion show. After viewing the randomly assigned feed for ten minutes, participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. There was no significant difference in self-esteem levels between individuals who viewed the influencer feed and individuals who viewed the positive feed.

The Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Light on Brassica rapa Growth and Development

Thomas Harrington, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effects of Light Wavelength and Gravity on Physarum polycephalum Growth

Reese Chesshir, Ouachita Baptist University
Taylor Barnhart, Ouachita Baptist University
Thomas Harrington, Ouachita Baptist University
Jim Taylor, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Physarum is a slime mold in the genus of mycetozoan and the family of Physaraceae. It is a single cellular, multinuclear organism that is not classified as an animal, plant, or fungi. The purpose of this experiment is to study the effect of different light wavelengths and the influence of gravity on Physarum growth patterns. The Physarum is grown in a bacteriological agar with distributed oats as its food base. Red, green, blue, red and blue, and no light was studied and expansion was documented. The possible effects of gravity conditions were introduced by a clinostat. The experiments showed that different light and gravity environments had no effect on expansion and growth of the Physarum in these conditions. The experimental results were analyzed using a single factor ANOVA test, concluding, all p-values showed statistical indifference between each condition. Therefore, the search for a food source has more influence on Physarum growth than different wavelengths of light and clinostat conditions.

The Effects of Personality on Chills and the Response to Live or Recorded Music

AubrieKate Moseley, Ouachita Baptist University
Lacey Ornelas, Ouachita Baptist University
Lauren Jenkins, Ouachita Baptist University
Cameron Marchant, Ouachita Baptist University
B. Allyson Phillips, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Our group is interested in conducting this study to look at the relationship between personality type and the physical sensation of getting chills while listening to music. We came across this topic by reading a study conducted by Emily C. Nusbaum et al. (2011) "Shivers and Timbres: Personality and the Experience of Chills From Music." This study used the Big Five Index questionnaire to determine if there was a relationship between chills and a specific personality trait. They found a correlation between the trait of "openness" and chills. This was the only trait that had a significant correlation. In our study, we will be isolating this trait by utilizing the Big Five Index questions developed by Soto, and only asking the questions that are related to openness. As a group, we developed a second variable that we wanted to compare with the "chills" experience as well. We want to see if there is a relationship between chills received during live or recorded music. Due to the experience of being in the environment of live music, we believe that it could increase the likelihood of experiencing chills. We have hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of the openness trait and who experience live music will be the most likely to experience chills. Those who have lower levels of openness and watch a recorded performance will be the least likely to experience chills. "Chills" are operationally defined as the physical appearance of goosebumps on the skin in direct response to environmental stimuli.

The Statistical Analysis Comparing the Heat Index Temperatures to the Rare Football Related Heat Illnesses in Prescott, Arkansas

Sarah Tuller, Ouachita Baptist University
Terry DeWitt, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

During this independent study we as a group analyzed the humidity index and injury report correlations during the 2020 football season at Prescott High School in Prescott, Arkansas. We gathered reliable data for the first 2 games at the very beginning of the season and the last 2 games at the end. We analyzed all the numbers from the heat index and humidity with the number of injuries occurring in a game. At the end of the season we gathered all of our data and came together as a group to construct this independent study in hopes to help us prevent future injuries in upcoming seasons. This study is led by Dr. Terry DeWitt at Ouachita Baptist University.

Tree Canopy Cover Influences Habitat Use of Breeding Birds at Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area

Kaleigh Thomas, Ouachita Baptist University
Grace Tidwell, Ouachita Baptist University
Kelsey Bester, Ouachita Baptist University
Christin Pruett, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

1:45 PM - 3:00 PM

Across the United States, bird populations have declined due to habitat loss (Rosenburg, et al). To better understand habitat use by species, researchers observed the bird populations at Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Southwest Arkansas. Students at Ouachita Baptist University surveyed 94 point count locations to determine species diversity and species abundance (Fig. 1). In addition, at each point, students recorded the percentage of tree canopy cover, ground cover, midstory cover, and shrub cover. These variables were used in multiple regression analysis to determine which variables were influential in explaining variation in species diversity and species abundance. All analysis was done using R (R Core Team). Scatter plots were created to show the correlation between the variables and species diversity and abundance (Fig.3). Two tree plots were created to show the interactions between variables (Fig. 2). The findings from the tree models determined how the variables were grouped together in the linear models. The model that best explains bird diversity included both ground coverage and canopy coverage (Table 1 ). The model that best explains bird abundance included both ground coverage and midstory coverage (Table 1 ). These findings suggest that the amount of canopy cover plays a substantial role in habitat use by breeding birds at Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area.

3:15 PM

A Combined Analysis of the Benefits of Breastfeeding for Mothers and Infants

Calley Maples, Ouachita Baptist University
Rue Ragsdale, Ouachita Baptist University
Drew Crutchfield, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Alternative to Modern Wound Dressings: Developing a Biodegradable Collagen Analog

Andrew Tarlton, Ouachita Baptist University
Sharon Hamilton, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Recent studies in modern wound dressings have focused on producing materials that promote wound healing by mimicking biofunctions in the wound healing process. Breakthroughs in this field have been achieved by electrospinning nanofibers from collagen to best mimic the morphology and components of the extracellular matrix. However, these dressings are expensive, not always degradable, and do not always contain antibacterial properties. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester that could be used with chitosan, an antibacterial biomacromolecule, to develop electrospun nanofibers that can be incorporated into wound dressings. The ideal wound dressing would be a hemostatic material that is biodegradable, inexpensive, inherently antibacterial, and promotes rapid wound healing.

Therefore, the overall goal of this project is to develop a material that incorporates these properties and can be electrospun into a nanofiber scaffold. Towards this effort, this project has focused on the synthesis of a novel biomimetic polycaprolactone (bPCL) prepared by modifying PCL via amide coupling reactions to attach molecules that mimic the amino acids naturally occurring in collagen. It is anticipated that these moieties will promote healing and hemostatic properties essential for wound dressings. Thus far, electrospinning protocols for PCL/chitosan fiber mats have been established through electrospinning trials and it is anticipated that these protocols can be applied to bPCL/chitosan solutions to prepare degradable, biomimetic, antibacterial nanofiber scaffolds. These novel mats will be analyzed via degradation and in vitro assays. It is expected that these studies will help assess the utility of these mats in biomedical applications.

An Assessment of Energy Drink Consumption Among Students and Their Knowledge Regarding the Potential Health Implications

Erica Klitz, Ouachita Baptist University
Molly Hunter, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Assessment of Malnutrition in Elderly Adults Implementing the Nutrition Focused Physical Exam

Maria Urbina, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Effects of COVID-19 Lifestyle Changes on Eating Habits of Individuals and Families: Is There an Increase in Obesity and Other Health Problems?

Erica Gaddie, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Incorporating a Bioengineered Protein and a Collagen Analog into Modern Wound Dressings

Joshua Spiva, Ouachita Baptist University
Sharon K. Hamilton, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Collagen is a vital part of wound healing and has been incorporated into a variety of modern wound dressings including electrospun fiber mats. The limitations of human collagen include high costs and limited availability. Chitosan, another biopolymer used in wound healing, possesses antimicrobial properties, and offers protection agains biofilms which hinder healing of the wound bed. Previously, our lab has electrospun chitosan and PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) with collagen to produce fiber mats that have shown promise as modern wound dressings. Additionally, the Hamilton Lab has developed a cost-effective collagen analog that has been incorporated into nanofiber scaffolds. The resulting nanofiber mats have been designed to mimic the morphology of the extracellular matrix in the body for use in biomedical applications including wound healing.

These biomimetic electrospun scaffolds show promise for releasing molecules into the wound bed including proteins and other large molecules. Our lab has incorporated s-HFGF1 (super-human fibroblast growth factor), a bioengineered protein based on human fibroblast growth factor, into nanofiber mats. Studies have shown that the direct application of s-HFGF1 to cells results in increased proliferation in vitro. The protein paired with the biomimetic and antimicrobial properties of the novel nano fiber scaffolds should provide synergistic results including a faster wound healing as well as preventing bacterial infection. We have assessed the ability of our nanofiber mats to release the s-HFGF1 protein in physiological conditions. In the future, protein release studies will be performed in vitro and analyzed using cell migration assays. As a step towards cell studies, supernatants from these release studies will be used in NIH 3T3 viability assays to evaluate the ability of cells to survive exposure to these novel dressings. In the future, cell migration assays will be performed to determine the impact of the released protein and novel dressing on the rate of in vitro wound healing. It is anticipated that these experiments will further verify the release of biomolecules from novel nanofiber scaffolds and a synergistic healing effect will be observed.

Monitoring the Leaching of Bisphenol-A from Panty Liners using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry

Keren Fernandez, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Nutritional Knowledge of Faculty and Staff at Ouachita Baptist University in Comparison to the Standards of USDA

Emily Garrett, Ouachita Baptist University
Latina Robinson, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Nutritional Knowledge of Fiber Consumption in Undergraduate Students

Jessie Golden, Ouachita Baptist University
Amanda Almand, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Optimizing a Passive Tracking Solar Panel System

Adrian Salazar-Rivera, Ouachita Baptist University
Ryan Pickelman, Ouachita Baptist University
Angela Douglass, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

For a solar panel to function efficiently, it must turn to face the sun throughout the day. Usually, an electronic device rotates a solar panel. In this experiment, hourly rotation of the panel was achieved through contraction of a shape memory alloy (SMA) and a gear system. A Fresnel lens directed the sun's rays onto the SMA causing it to contract. A delayed reset system was built to turn the panel from west to east at the end of the day. In addition, this project investigated different materials to properly heat and cool the SMA within the plexiglass housing apparatus. The overall goal for the project was to automatically power an appliance on campus with solar energy.

Sensory Evaluation of Banana Bread Using Different Fat Substitutes

Keren Fernandez, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Heart disease due to atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death in America. Atherosclerosis is caused by the high consumption of saturated and trans fats in the diet. One of the most common sources of this fats is sweetened breads. According to a study done by the Journal of American Dietetic Association of consumption patterns of Americans, it was found that 40% of the calories consumed by this population comes from empty sugar or fatty foods.1

Objective: To evaluate the acceptability in texture and flavor of banana bread cooked with different fat substitutes in comparison to a regular loaf made with butter

Design: Four different loafs of banana bread were cooked. A control made with the normal source of fat in a banana bread recipe, butter and the three different variables consisting of applesauce, canola oil, and avocados. After the four different loafs were made, a piece of each loaf was presented to 24 participants selected at random in Jones Science Center. Each sample was evaluated for flavor, aftertaste, moisture, texture, interior, and crust color using a scorecard.

Results: After the results were collected for all the samples, the canola oil variable rated the best in the flavor, aftertaste, and interior color category, both the avocado and canola oil variable shared a similar rating in the crust color category, and the avocado and applesauce variable shared a similar rating in the texture and moisture category.

Conclusion: A banana bread with a similar acceptability rate to that of the control can be created with a lower fat content.

Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits Prepared with Flour Alternatives

Gwyneth Hadasa, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Flour plays an important role in structure for baked products. Celiac disease, wheat allergy, and/or gluten intolerance force people to find alternatives to still enjoy many food products.

Objective: To evaluate the differences in textures and flavor that different types of gluten-free flour would produce, comparing them to a regular biscuit made up of all-purpose flour.

Methods: Biscuit variations were prepared using regular all-purpose flour (control), all-purpose gluten-free blend, almond flour, and coconut flour. A subjective sensory evaluation was conducted. The participants consisted of students and faculty who happened to be in Jones Science Center at Ouachita Baptist University (DBU) on February 24, 2022, 11 AM - 12 PM. Descriptive statistic, ANOVA, and Post Hoc comparisons were computed in Microsoft Excel®.

Results: One-way analysis of variance (AN OVA) of F (3,82) reached significance, p<0.001, on all characteristics evaluated. Comparing frequency and average scores, gluten-free blend has the lowest differences in the numerical value to all purpose flour regarding surface contour, interior color, flakiness, density, flavor, and aftertaste. Regarding crust color, coconut flour biscuits had the lowest difference of numerical value to the control biscuit.

Conclusion: Biscuits made with gluten-free blend flour had the best resemblance to a regular biscuit on the texture and flavor. The blend is a good alternative to use if switching to a gluten-free diet, while other nutrients could be attained with a balanced diet.

Sensory Evaluation of Black Bean Brownies Prepared with Sugar Substitutes

Erica Gaddie, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Introduction: Diseases such as heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus are some of the leading causes of death in the world; however, these life-threatening diseases can be prevented with diet Since sugar has the potential to contribute to hyperglycemia, obesity, hypertension, and inflammation; alternatives were used to replace the potentially harmful granulated sugar. Black bean brownies are a way to reduce carbohydrate intake while an increase in protein, fiber, unsaturated fat, flavanols, and antioxidants is present

Objective: To produce a heart-healthy, nutrient dense brownie with a low glycemic index, while also providing other health benefits.

Methodology: Sugar substitutes such as monk fruit sweetener, stevia, and agave were used to identify a better replacement for granulated sugar in black bean brownies including similar sensory properties align with the control. Each alternative was calculated for the appropriate exchange ratio and combined with a standard mixture for the Ouachita Baptist University students and faculty/staff. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze the nutrient composition, and a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was used for descriptive statistics including frequencies and averages.

Results: The control took the lead for best frequency results in density, tenderness, sweetness, flavor, aftertaste; all categories apart from moisture, which was taken by agave. Monk fruit had the greatest number of votes for no aftertaste (n=8; 33%), while stevia was voted for the strongest aftertaste. The control was the most energy and nutrient dense out of the variations with a total of 69 kcalories, 1 O grams of carbohydrates, 5. 5 grams of sugar with 5 of the grams being added sugar per piece. Stevia and monk fruit shared last place by providing the lowest amount of kilocalories and sugar with only 48 kcalories, 2.8 grams sugar, and 0.1 grams of added sugar per serving, but monk fruit also provided the least amount of carbohydrate (4.9 g).

Conclusion: Since the monk fruit sweetener was one of the participant's favorites while also proving the best nutrition, it is recommended by the research team to use as a sugar substitute rather than granulated sugar.

Sensory Evaluation of Brownies Prepared with Different Types of Fat

Maria Urbina, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one leading cause of death in current society due to the popularity of high consumption of fatty foods which affects the heart. Many dietitians and other health care professionals suggests the in order to decrease the risk for CVD the patients must lower the consumption of saturated fats in the diet and replace them for healthy fats such as monosaturated and polysaturated fats. With providing patients a lower fat/ saturated fats options and still appealing food alternative, it can help lower the risk for heart disease.

Methods: There was a total of 26 participants. Results from the scoreboards were collected and put into an excel spreadsheet to organize the data and to create tables and graphs. Average scores were run over each category and standard deviations as well. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze macronutrients.

Results: Color- butter was the highest ranked with 46% of the participants stating that it had a "very dark brown or black" with olive oil coming in second place. Aroma- amongst all the variables, 57% of the participants reported that applesauce had the highest "slight aroma". 61 % stated that butter was the most tender and moist, with olive oil in second place. The best overall flavor was butter and applesauce were ranked the lowest with "unsweet flavor". Applesauce had the highest distinct aftertaste, with avocado following it

Conclusion: Overall, the butter control had the best results. Due to the similarity structure, olive oil came in second place. Regarding the nutrient analysis the variables with less fat were avocado and applesauce.

Sensory Evaluation of Chocolate Chip Cookies with Egg Substitutes

Tony Threadgill, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Sensory Evaluation of Different Egg Substitutes in Pancakes

Michell Byers, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Sensory Evaluation on Adding Collagen Powder to Desserts

Cannon Fisher, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

The Comparison of Nutrition Knowledge Between Male and Female Athletes

Allison Robertson, Ouachita Baptist University
Blanca Rodriguez, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

The Correlation Between a Nutritious Diet and a Ouachita Baptist University Student's Academic Performance

Alyssa Huber, Ouachita Baptist University
Kristen Dabov, Ouachita Baptist University
Detri Brech, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Current research indicates that college students, who are participating in little to no exercise and consuming an unbalanced diet heavily influenced by processed food and limited amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, lean protein, and dairy can lead to poor academic performance.

Objective: To determine whether a positive correlation exists between a balanced diet, frequent exercise, and a college student's academic performance at Ouachita Baptist University (OBU).

Design: In August 2021, following the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a research design involving the distribution of a questionnaire survey was conducted and given to students taking prerequisite nutrition classes within OBU's School of Natural Sciences. Over a two-month duration, the students' questionnaire data was collected and analyzed.

Participants/Setting: A sample population of 50 students were selected. The population comprised of both 25 male and 25 female adult students, who were from different majors and classifications. Statistical Analysis- Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet software analyzed the students' demographic, focusing ability, and FFQ data.

Results: Fifty-three percent of the 17 students, who could easily focus, consumed a nutrient-dense diet, while 91 % of the 23 students, who could not easily focus, consumed a less nutrient-dense diet.

Conclusion: Essentially, these findings are consistent with the current literature that states there is a positive correlation with improved college academic performance and the frequent consumption of a nutrient-dense diet.

The Development of a New Water-Soluble Zinc Porphyrin, ZnTTP-3AP, and Its Potential as Photodynamic Therapy Agent

Emma Rouse, Ouachita Baptist University
Joseph E. Bradshaw, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment being developed for various medical disorders. PDT uses the radiant energy of light and a photosensitive agent for treatment. A novel water-soluble zinc(II) porphyrin was developed as a potential PDT agent. When activated by light, a singlet oxygen is generated which affects the surrounding cells. The goal of this research was to synthesize and characterize a new water-soluble zinc(II) porphyrin incorporating 3-amino-1-propanol. An MTT assay utilizing A549 lung cancer cells was completed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of ZnTPP-3AP. Preliminary results indicate ZnTPP-3AP has promise as a potential PDT agent.

The Effects of COVID-19 on Childhood Obesity: A Quasi-Systematic Review

Gwyneth Hadasa, Ouachita Baptist University
Maria Urbina, Ouachita Baptist University
Erica Gaddie, Ouachita Baptist University
Detri Brech, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Childhood obesity has been an ongoing public health concern through the years. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, schools went online causing changes in diet and physical activity of children. Children had a higher sedentary lifestyle than usual causing a decline of physical activity. This led to an increase on the prevalence of childhood obesity.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle changes in childhood obesity regarding nutrition status and physical activity.

Method: A quasi-systematic review was conducted. ProQuest, EbscoHost, PubMed and journals such as the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and the International Journal of Obesity were utilized to collect data. A total of 70 scholarly journals were used to assess factors that had impacts on childhood obesity.

Results: Overall, there was an increase in childhood obesity. The four main factors were food intake, physical activity (PA), other health aspects, and school closures. A higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, snacking, and home-cooked meals was detected. There was an increase on sleep time and schedule, screen time (ST), and a decrease of PA. The closing of schools played a role on weight gain as a result of reduced movement.

Conclusion: Childhood obesity has increased as an effect of COVID-19. Negative lifestyles were developed such as an increase of sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating patterns.

The Effects of Eating Habits on the Mental Health of College Students

Erica Gaddie, Ouachita Baptist University
Keren Fernandez, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: During the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood, the brain requires adequate nutrients to properly develop and prevent psychiatric disorders. However, as teens transition from high school to college, a pattern of high calorie and sugar intake, irregular meals, and lack of consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes predominant. Since college students are at a greater risk of developing mental health disorders compared to other age groups, it is of interest to study the factors that affect this population's mental health.

Design: The design of the study was a survey administered in person. Data was collected over the month of October through an original questionnaire utilizing a Likert scale. Participants/settings: The participants were college students (n=63) on Ouachita Baptist University's (OBU's) campus ranging in age of 18-22 and above. Statistical Analysis: The data was collected and inputted into an Excel spreadsheet to be organized and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were performed along with a variety of functions to determine the degree of correlations in dietary intake and emotional status of individuals. Results: Of all the food items considered, sugary beverages and caffeine intake were found to have a significant positive correlation with mental health where an increased intake of sugary beverages was shown to increase depressive states, while an increased intake of caffeine was shown to increase feelings of anxiety in the participants. Forty-nine percent of the participants consumed fruits and vegetables three to five times per week. Approximately 21 % of participants reported to never eat legumes, and 33% never eat yogurt. Fried foods were consumed three to five times per week by 51 % of respondents. Sugary food and beverage intakes were as high as 79%, and 62% of participants consumed these items more than three times per week. Additionally, 70% of the college students consumed some form of caffeine three or more times per week. The stress levels were high in 40% of participants most of the time. Approximately 95% experienced some form of anxiety at least once in a while, and 63% of participants felt depressed at least every once in a while.

Conclusion: For the purpose of this research, it was concluded that eating habits did not have a significant correlation in the mental health of college students except for caffeine and sugary beverages where higher levels of anxiety and depression was seen in the participants that indicated a higher consumption.

The Potential Advancement of Photodynamic Therapy Using a Novel Water-Soluble Zinc Porphyrin, ZnTPP-5AP

Sidney Pigott, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Use of Milk Alternatives in a Muffin Mix to Determine Acceptance for Lactose Intolerant Individuals

Meg Atchison, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background: Lactose intolerant individuals are faced with the challenge of finding alternatives to dairy containing foods and beverages.

Objective: The objective of the project is to see the effects that non-dairy milk substitutes have on muffins that are made from a mix.

Methods: Twenty judges completed a sensory scorecard evaluation to evaluate various aspects of four different muffins prepared with whole milk as the control, as well as almond milk, water, and soymilk. Microsoft excel was used to chart scorecard data and nutritionist pro was used to conduct a nutrient analysis.

Results: Almond milk had the highest scores for all characteristics evaluated.

Conclusion: Using a milk alternative can still produce a pleasing product for individuals who are lactose intolerant.

Using Emitted Vibrational Frequencies to Determine Watermelon Sweetness

Jimmy Castro, Ouachita Baptist University
Bennett Hasley, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

The current focus of this project is to gather audio signals from thumping watermelon to determine if there is any correlation between the sound produced and the sugar concentration of the watermelon. The audio signals are converted to harmonic frequencies using the FFT and then compared to the sweetness of the watermelon. The ultimate goal of this long-term project is to create a mobile app to be used by consumers when determining which watermelon they should buy at the store.

Weekly Consuption of Fruits and Vegetables Among Undergraduate Students

Ashleigh Batte, Ouachita Baptist University
Angelica Montes, Ouachita Baptist University
Detri Brech, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Background - Intake of fruits and vegetables is important in the overall health and wellness of individuals. Diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and some cancers can be associated with a healthy lifestyle including a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.1 Fruits and vegetables are high in micronutrients and antioxidants that are beneficial to our health. 2,3

Objective - The purpose of this study is to understand the choices students make regarding food after leaving their family homes. To see when left on their own and the influence of their new college lifestyle has affected their diets. This study will help to evaluate the need for nutrition education on campus.

Design - The design was a survey questionnaire given to students prior to the start of their class. The research was collected at the beginning of the month of September, 2021.

Participants/Setting - Research was conducted at Ouachita Baptist University.

Statistical Analysis - Excel® was used to organize the data.

Results - There were a total of 19 males and 31 females (n=50). The results from this study have confirmed what these studies have states, which is that very few participants consumed even 3 servings of their fruits (1 %) and vegetables (5%) per meal.

Conclusion - The data showed that the majority of undergraduate students do not meet the daily recommended intake of fruits and vegetables.

ZnTPPEA as a Potential Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy

Marly Welborn, Ouachita Baptist University
Joseph E. Bradshaw, Ouachita Baptist University

Walker Conference Center B

3:15 PM - 4:30 PM

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment that is used against certain types of cancer and other diseases. It functions using a photosensitizer in the presence of light that contributes to cell death in the desired tissues. This research centered on the development of a novel water-soluble porphyrin that could be utilized as a photosensitizer. Using ethanolamine the resulting compound, ZnTPP-EA, was created. Purification and characterization was carried out. The ZnTPP-EA was tested on the A549 lung cancer cell line using an MTT assay under light and dark conditions to assess the compound's effectiveness as a photosensitizer for PDT.