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The purpose of this research paper is to summarize and critique Daniel Moynihan's essay entitled Defining Deviancy Down and then to evaluate whether Donald Trump has helped normalize, increase, or change hate crime in America. This will be achieved by examining the Southern Poverty Law Center’s report on hate crime data since the 2016 election. The hope is to find a connection between Moynihan's normalization redefinition and how Trump’s nomination has affected Americans, specifically in the context of hate crime.


This paper was presented as part of the Crime and Deviance course (SOCI 3023) taught by Dr. David Caddell.