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Our study tested the effects of gender exclusive and gender inclusive language on males’ and females’ feelings of ostracism, motivation, identification, and their emotions.

Research has shown that being rejected or ignored can have negative psychological effects. (Stout & Dasgupta, 2011).

Ostracism is both the act being ignored and excluded. It includes directly differing with the individual, indicating his or her failings, as well as actively denying being associated with this individual. (Cheung & Choi, 2000).

Discrimination can be understood as a larger sociological component that includes ostracism. (Cheung & Choi, 2000).

Research Question: Does the use of gender-inclusive and gender-exclusive language have an effect on those who receive it?

We measured the extent to which participants perceived the language as sexist, their feelings of exclusion versus feelings of inclusion, motivation due to the language used, and identification with the language used

We predicted that females would experience higher levels of ostracism, negative affect, and lower levels of motivation and identification.