Date of Award


Document Type




First Reader

Dr. Sara E. Hubbard

Second Reader

Dr. Marty Perry

Third Reader

Dr. Byron Eubanks


Bisphenol A (BPA) has been one of the most used plasticizers with more than 4.8 million tons produced in 2012. BPA is also an endocrine disruptor that has been linked to adverse health effects such as cancer, obesity, behavioral and mood changes, lowered fertility, developmental changes and more in humans and other animals. The evidence of the toxicity of BPA, even at very low levels, has caused many countries to limit its use, especially in baby bottles and other baby-related hard plastic items. In these times, BPA has been replaced with other bisphenols, such as Bisphenol S (BPS). BPS is more stable and heat resistant that BPA. However, BPS is also an endocrine disruptor and can behave like BPA in cellular activities. Also, studies have shown more dermal penetration of BPS than BPA, and it has been linked to similar adverse health effects.

In this research, methods were developed to simultaneously determine concentrations of BPA and BPS using UV/VIS Absorption Spectrophotometry and High Pressure liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

These methods were applied to water: methanol (1:1) samples exposed to different kinds of plastics, food cans and thermal receipt paper to test for leaching of BPA and/or BPS.

The concentrations determined ranged from w-x for BPA and y-z from BPS. The latter concentrations were above the Total Daily Intake approved by the Food and Drug Administration or the European Food Safety Authority. The methods used suggested that other chemicals leached out in addition to BPA and BPS. Time (0-2 weeks) and temperature (22-70 degrees C) were varied to simulated everyday use of these products.

The effectiveness of the UV-VIS Absorption Spectrophotometry in determining concentrations of BPA and BPS in samples was compared to HPLC using statistical analysis. And this method proved to be effective.



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