Date of Award


Document Type




First Reader

Dr. Timothy Hayes

Second Reader

Dr. Ruth Plymale

Third Reader

Dr. Kent Faught


The bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA), a tropical tree, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of cardiovascular disease. TA bark is known to contain various antioxidants, and recently it has been suggested to enhance function of the normal heart as an over-the-counter supplement in the USA. The mechanism underlying cardiac actions of TA bark are unknown. Doxorubicin (DOX), a commonly-used anticancer drug, is known to cause cardiotoxicity, a major concern in chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to investigate whether aqueous extracts of TA bark (TAaq) protect the heart from DOX treatment by counteracting the oxidative stress caused by DOX. H9c2 cells, a cell line derived from the rat heart, were used for the in vitro study to examine cellular mechanis(s) of actions of TAaq. Echocardiography was used to monitor cardiac function of mice with and without co-treatment for DOX and TAaq. Our results showed that treatments of H9c2 cells with DOX (1 uM) for 24 hr caused an increase in superoxide production and damage to the growth network which were attenuated by co-treatment withTAaq (100 ug/ml). Our in vivo data showed that TAaq (50-100 ug/ml in drinking water) prevented the decrease in left ventricle function caused by multiple weekly treatments with DOX. These preliminary data suggests that TAaq protects the heart in part from oxidative stress caused by DOX.


My name is Sarah Bishop and I am a pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in both chemistry and biology at Ouachita Baptist University. Part of my degree is obtaining research hours for both chemistry and biology. In the sumer of 2013, I participated in research at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences under the INBRE Summer Research Fellowship. As a result of my research experience I produced this thesis is addressed to future and current science students at OBU and science students in general. This thesis addresses how my idea of research has changed before and after this experience and how I have changed as a student and as a person. Please enjoy.



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