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The Ottoman Empire reigned for over five centuries throughout today’s Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Southern Europe, starting around 1299. However, after World War I, it completely disbanded, creating several nation-states. What led to the fall of this massive Empire? There seem to be several factors including actions of World War I. Both the Allies and the Entente fought in the Middle East, each side supporting different groups within the Ottoman Empire. During the World War I period, the Young Turks, those in government in the Ottoman Empire, desired to create a “Turanian nationality.” This included a “Turkification” of the non-Turkish areas of the Empire. The Germans supported this effort, while Britain and France supported the Arab nationalist revolt against the Young Turks. Were the actions of Western European nations in the Ottoman Empire part of the cause of the fall of the entire Empire? In this research paper, I will examine the relationship between Germany and the Young Turks, as well as the relationship between Britain and France and the Arab nationals. I will attempt to determine the intent of these relationships, as well as whether or not European actions in the Middle East were one of the causes of the fall of the Empire. I will also discuss the causes of the fall outside of the impact of European nations.


This paper was submitted as part of the World at War course (HIST 3233) taught by Dr. Bethany Hicks.



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